SPI Programme Organization and Development
Within the framework of its Horizon 2000 science programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) provides satellite platforms but leaves funding of instruments to the scientific communities involved. The latter organize themselves so as to obtain the financial backing of their own national agencies. The Integral spectrometer was therefore the product of a multinational consortium of several European countries (France, Germany, Belgium, Spain and Italy) and the United States.
Four different development models, each with different objectives, were=e made. Two were used for checking and qualifying interfaces with the satellite, but did not provide information on the instrument's internal workings. This aspect was clarified by two qualification models: the Structural and Thermal Model (STM) and the Engineering Model (EM). The flight model itself went through the additional qualification tests necessary and the traditional acceptance tests. All five models were integrated by a CNES team within the clean rooms of the Toulouse Space Centre.
CNES was prime contractor with responsibility for the spectrometer's development. It was therefore responsible for the mechanical, thermal, software and electrical design in addition to the drawing up of general design specifications, specifications on sub-assembly requirements, both internal and external interfaces and the product assurance plan. It was also responsible for all integration activities at the Toulouse Space Centre and all test definition and performance activities at Intespace.
CNES was in charge of the design and had certain parts of the spectrometer made on its behalf (these included the satellite/spectrometer interface structure, thermal control, the cryostat, flight software and the harness).
The satellite was integrated in Turin by its prime contractor, Alenia. The launch occured in October 2002 using a Proton launcher.
|General prime contractor:||CNES|
|Anticoincidence||DARA, MPE (Germany)|
|Germanium||University of Louvain (Belgium)|
|Detection surface||CESR (France)|
|DFEE unit||CEA (France)|
|Lower structure||CNES (France)|
|Flight software||CNES (France)|
|Thermal control||CNES (France)|
|Electric test bench||University of Milan (Italy)|
|PSD||University of Berkeley and San Diego (USA)|
|Coded Mask||GACE (Spain)|
|PSAC||University of Milan (Italy)|
|Cryogenic system||ESTEC (Netherland)|
Laboratories and cooperation context for IBIS instrument
Besides CEA/DSM/DAPNIA, the IBIS consortium comprised the following laboratories:
- IAS Frascati (Italy)
- ITESRE in Bologna (Italy)
- IFCAI in Palermo (Italy)
- Valencia University (Spain)
- NASA's MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in Huntsville (USA)
- Tübingen University (Germany)
- Bergen University (Norway)
- SRC in Warsaw (Poland)
- Institut Copernicus in Warsaw (Poland)
Pietro Ubertini, from IAS Frascati, is the Principal Investigator (PI), assisted by two co-Principal Investigators (co-PI) : François Lebrun at CEA/DSM/DAPNIA/SAp and G. di Cocco at ITESRE in Bologna.
IAS Frascati is prime contractor for the project, the PI and his two co-PIs applied a traditional management structure with for the scientific aspect a group of scientists (co-Is) from the consortium laboratories and for the technical aspect a system team led by LABEN (I).
Within the consortium, CEA Saclay's participation consisted in the supply of the CdTe detection plane and the readout electronics of the command and data processing software at ISDC.